Wednesday, 9 November 2011

[www.keralites.net] Insulin Pens

 

Insulin Pens

Normally, about half of the day's insulin is released as a relatively steady background or basal delivery. When carbs are eaten, a spike or bolus of insulin release occurs from the pancreas. In attempting to mimic the pancreas with a basal/bolus approach that better matches insulin to need, a convenient and precise way to deliver insulin can be very helpful.
The best way for many to mimic the pancreas is with an insulin pen. Pens have been available for a quarter century, but their use in the U.S. lags behind the wide popularity they have experienced in Europe. Insulin pens allow discrete injections on a just-in-time basis. There is no need to carry a syringe and bottle of insulin and doses can be conveniently dialed up, making dose errors less likely.
An insulin pen looks like a fountain pen and is usually only slightly thicker in size. It has a disposable needle at one end with a cartridge that holds insulin and a dial that is used to select the insulin dose. Pen cartridges hold 150 or 300 units of insulin. Some pens are disposable and thrown away once the insulin is gone, while others are more environmentally-friendly with disposable glass cartridges that are replaced when they become empty.
Different pens can deliver insulin in half unit, one unit or two unit increments. Half-unit pens, such as the NovoPen Junior, are particularly well suited for children and adults on low doses, and come in bright graphic designs. Two unit pens, such as the AutoPen from Owen Mumford, are ideal for those with Type 2 diabetes or others who use large doses of insulin.
Prefilled cartridges are available for common insulins, such as Apidra, Humalog or Novolog, and Lantus or Levemir. Although we do not recommend them for most people, 70/30 mixtures which contain fixed ratios of 70% longer acting and 30% shorter acting insulin are available for Novolog and Humalog. This works well for people who have difficulty determining correct doses and take doses twice a day, as well as for those not yet ready to take the fixed number of injections required for a basal/bolus approach. Most people who love the convenience of a pen will use one pen with a rapid insulin to cover carbs and lower high readings as needed several times a day. Then they use a second pen to take one or two doses of a flat long-acting basal insulin in separate injections.

Pen Use

To prepare the pen for use, always prime it first. Purge two to five units of insulin into a sink or the air to ensure that the pen is functioning, not clogged, and has insulin in it. Put a needle on before each injection and take the needle off after using it for an injection to avoid insulin loss or evaporation of insulin through the needle. When the pen is not in use, keep its cap on.
The needle on the pen is pushed into the skin and a button is pressed to give the selected dose. Pen needles are available in different lengths and sizes. The needle may be discarded after each use or at the end of the day.
After you inject, leave the needle under the skin while you count to eight. It takes longer for insulin to enter the skin from a pen than from an injection by a needle. If insulin is dripping out of the needle when you take it out, you probably have not received your full dose. Leave it in longer next time.
In storing a pen, avoid freezing and exposure to heat, just as you would with a bottle of insulin. A pen with insulin should be kept unrefrigerated only as long as the insulin in the pen can be kept unrefrigerated.

Some Notable Pens

NovoPen Junior is part of the first complete diabetes management system designed with kids and adults on low doses in mind. It allows you to dose in half increments if desired.
The SoloStar is an easy-to-use insulin pen made by Lantus. It comes pre-filled with Lantus insulin. You can set doses from 1 to 80 units one unit at a time.
HumaPen Memoir is the first insulin pen with a memory. HumaPen Memoir records the date, time, and amount of your last 16 doses (including priming doses) (No longer available in the US)
HumaPen Luxura HD is a reusable insulin pen that doses in half-unit increments from 0.5 to 30 units. HumaPen LUXURA HD is for use only with Humalog 3 mL insulin cartridges.
Pre-filled pens are also available for administering another hormone called Amylin or Symlin that is lost when the beta cells are damaged. The SymlinPen 60 delivers 15, 30, 45, or 60 micrograms per dose while the SymlinPen 120 delivers 60 or 120 micrograms per dose.
Mon, 12/20/2010 - 15:23



--
 
M Junaid Tahir

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[www.keralites.net] Study on insulin injection alternative

 

Insulin helps control high blood glucose levels, but many people are reluctant to start insulin therapy because of the need for injections.

A new form of insulin that can be inhaled has been on the market for about a year. Although the Food and Drug Administration has approved inhaled insulin, little is known about the long-term safety and effectiveness of drugs that are inhaled.

What if there was a way to deliver insulin in a slow and steady trickle all day like a real pancreas does? That's the idea behind electronic insulin pumps. These wearable devices hold a one- or two-day supply of short-acting insulin that's dispensed continuously for basal coverage while providing a preprogrammed spurt of insulin at the touch of a button before meals. Pumps allow close control of blood sugar without the need for a lot of injections. Every two or three days, you need to change the site of the catheter that connects the pump to your body, which involves inserting a small needle just under the skin.

Automatic insulin pumps would seem ideal for children, but doctors tend to worry that kids aren't responsible enough to do extra blood testing and carefully program their doses to match their meals. Yet a 2002 study at Strong Children's Hospital, in Rochester, New York, found that, with only a couple of exceptions, 53 children under age 13 were safely able to achieve better glucose control with less hypoglycemia using pumps than they did with injections.

Insulin pumps are becoming more and more popular among people with type 1 diabetes (for whom they're mainly intended) because the instant adjustments allow a great deal of flexibility, they provide excellent glucose control, and their precise delivery often lets you use less insulin than with injections. What's more, new water-resistant pumps can be worn almost anytime, anywhere -- even when swimming. Pumps can also be quickly disconnected for, say, sexual activity. Fail-safe controls keep the unit from giving you an insulin overdose, beep if flow shuts down due to a clog, and signal when the batteries are running low.

For all their advantages, though, pumps aren't perfect. For one thing, they're pricey, costing between $4,000 and $6,000, and insurance doesn't always pick up the full tab. Some doctors are finding that the long-acting insulins glargine and detemir, with their rapid onset and steady action, can control basal glucose almost as well as a pump, at less cost. Problems like clogs and infections at the injection site can sometimes interfere with your insulin delivery, although patient education and practice can minimize these problems -- as can more frequent self-monitoring with blood tests, which you'll find are still necessary. Talk to your doctor to determine whether or not an insulin pump is a good idea for you.

Insulin infusers. Infusers are like an insulin pump -- without the pump. What's left is a catheter that remains in place at the injection site (usually the abdomen). You still need a needle to insert the catheter, but once the catheter's in place, you can leave it there for two or three days and administer insulin with a syringe through a self-sealing port. As with pumps, infections develop more easily at the injection site with this method, so you'll have to be diligent about keeping paraphernalia sterile, especially when you insert the catheter.

Pen injectors. These devices don't eliminate needles, but they make injections more convenient by prepacking the insulin, needle, and syringe into one small unit that looks like a fountain pen. In this case, the "ink" cartridge is a vial that contains insulin, which you inject using a needle at the pen's tip. When it's time to take your shot, you uncap the pen, choose your dose by turning a dial, then press a button to inject the insulin. The nondisposable pens generally cost $40 to $60.

Jet injectors. If you don't want to use needles at all, you might try a jet injector. These devices use a powerful burst of air to shoot a fine spray of insulin directly into your skin. Jet injections are not entirely pain-free: You'll feel a nip from the pressurized blast, and some people find that the jets cause bruising. But they can be a good option for children or anybody who'd rather not stick themselves with needles. Like pen injectors, jets can carry multiple doses at a time, and you can choose the amount of insulin you want by turning a dial. Jet injectors cost around $1,000, so price may be a barrier. Some units require thorough cleaning every two weeks by taking the unit apart and boiling the components or using germ-killing cleaners. If you're considering a jet injector, ask your doctor if you can arrange to test one before buying

The researchers wanted to examine a number of studies of inhaled insulin in order to get a more complete and reliable picture of the safety and effectiveness of inhaled insulin.
The studies included 4,023 adults who had type 1 or type 2 diabetes.

The medical literature and other databases were searched to find all randomized clinical studies of inhaled insulin that lasted at least 12 weeks. Sixteen studies were found. Two reviewers examined each study.

Injectable insulin reduced A1C (a long-term measure of blood glucose control) slightly better than inhaled insulin, but equal numbers of people on the inhaled and injectable formulations reached the A1C level of 7% recommended by the American Diabetes Association. People who inhaled insulin were more likely to have low blood glucose levels than those taking oral diabetes medication, but about the same as those who took injectable insulin. In general, people preferred inhaled insulin to injectable insulin.

The 12-week follow-up period may not be long enough to assess long-term safety of inhaled insulin. There could be subtle differences in the studies included in this project that affect the outcomes.

Inhaled insulin is a safe and effective alternative to injectable insulin for many people with diabetes. Longer-term studies are needed to see whether inhaled insulin remains safe if taken over a period of years

http://in.answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20090311022527AANpUVC


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[www.keralites.net] Statement by Jtce. Markhandeya Katju, former Supreme Court Justice

 

. ജഡ്ജിയുടെ ഇരിപ്പിടത്തിലേക്ക് ചാടിക്കയറുക, ഫയലുകള്‍ തട്ടിയെടുക്കുക, കോടതിയില്‍ ബഹളമുണ്ടാക്കുക, സാക്ഷിയെയോ കക്ഷിയെയോ ഭീഷണിപ്പെടുത്തുക തുടങ്ങിയ ഘട്ടങ്ങളിലെ കോടതിയലക്ഷ്യം ആവശ്യമുള്ളൂ. കോടതിപ്രവര്‍ത്തനം തടസ്സപ്പെടുത്താത്ത അഭിപ്രായപ്രകടനങ്ങളുടെയോ വിമര്‍ശങ്ങളുടെയോ പേരില്‍ നടപടി ആവശ്യമില്ല.
ജനങ്ങള്‍ക്ക് സ്വതന്ത്രഅഭിപ്രായം പ്രകടിപ്പിക്കാനുള്ള അവകാശം ഉറപ്പുവരുത്തുന്നതാണ്ഭ ഭരണഘടനയുടെ 19(1)(എ) വകുപ്പ്.   129, 215 വകുപ്പുകള്‍ ഉന്നത നീതിപീഠങ്ങള്‍ക്ക് കോടതിയലക്ഷ്യ നടപടിക്ക് അധികാരം നല്‍കുന്നു. എന്നാല്‍ , ഒരു ജനാധിപത്യരാഷ്ട്രമെന്ന നിലയില്‍ 19(1)(എ) വകുപ്പിനാണ് പ്രാമുഖ്യം നല്‍കേണ്ടത്. ജഡ്ജിമാരെ വിമര്‍ശിക്കാനുള്ള സ്വാതന്ത്ര്യം ജനങ്ങള്‍ക്ക് നല്‍കണം.
ബ്രിട്ടനിലെ ഡെയ്ലിമിറര്‍ [Daily Mirror] പത്രം ഒരു വിധിയെ വിമര്‍ശിച്ച് നിങ്ങള്‍ വിഡ്ഢികള്‍ എന്ന തലക്കെട്ടോടെ ജഡ്ജിമാരുടെ ചിത്രംവച്ച് വാര്‍ത്ത പ്രസിദ്ധീകരിച്ചു. എന്നാല്‍ , ബ്രിട്ടീഷ് കോടതി നടപടിയെടുത്തില്ല. ഇതേക്കുറിച്ച് വിധി പുറപ്പെടുവിച്ച ബെഞ്ചിലെ സീനിയറായ ലോര്‍ഡ് ടെംപിള്‍മാന്റെ പ്രതികരിച്ചത് താന്‍ വിഡ്ഢിയല്ലെന്ന് തനിക്ക് വിശ്വാസമുണ്ടെങ്കിലും മറ്റുള്ളവര്‍ക്ക് അവരുടെ നിലപാട് അറിയിക്കാന്‍ സ്വാതന്ത്ര്യമുണ്ടെന്നാണ്.
ഇംഗ്ലണ്ടിലെ ജഡ്ജിമാര്‍ ഇത്തരം വ്യക്തിഗത വിമര്‍ശങ്ങള്‍ കണക്കിലെടുക്കാറില്ല. ആരെങ്കിലും കോടതിക്ക് അകത്തോ പുറത്തോ തന്നെ വിഡ്ഢിയെന്ന് വിളിച്ചാല്‍ താന്‍ നടപടിക്ക് മുതിരില്ല. കാരണം അത് തന്റെ പ്രവര്‍ത്തനത്തെ ബാധിക്കുന്നതല്ല. എന്തായാലും വാക്കുകള്‍ക്ക് ഒരിക്കലും എല്ലൊടിക്കാനാകില്ല. ഒരിക്കലും വിമര്‍ശങ്ങളുടെ പേരില്‍ കോടതിയലക്ഷ്യം പാടില്ല- ജസ്റ്റിസ് കട്ജു പറഞ്ഞു.

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[www.keralites.net] Thought for the Day !!

 
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[www.keralites.net] The wonderful living beauty under water�. Enjoy

 
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